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Apdrošināto personu interešu aizsardzība

Oktobris 29, 2012  |  kategorija: Jaunumi

Latvijas Profesionālo apdrošināšanas brokeru asociācija (PABA) ir sagatavojusi vairākus priekšlikumus, kā nodrošināt apdrošināto personu interešu aizsardzību, un labāk piemērot Latvijas likumus un normatīvos aktus reālajai situācijai apdrošināšanas nozarē.

Plašāku sabiedrību finanšu nozarē bieži vien vairāk interesē bankas (īpaši, kad atkal parādījusies  interese par atsevišķu banku stabilitāti). Tomēr finanšu sektorā bez bankām ietilpst arī apdrošināšanas sabiedrības. Apdrošināšanas un uzkrājošais  sektors (dzīvības apdrošināšana, pensiju līmeņi)  daudzās valstīs ir pat ievērojami lielāks par banku sektoru. Tādēļ gluži automātiski rodas jautājumi kā Latvijā tiek aizsargātas apdrošināto personu intereses un vai Latvijā apdrošināto personu intereses tiek adekvāti aizsargātas. Notikumi ap nu jau gadu atpakaļ bankrotējušo Krājbanku parādīja, ka bankai piederoša apdrošināšanas sabiedrība (LKB Life), nespēja pārdzīvot mātes kompānijas maksātnespēju un bankrotu. Arī AAS LKB Life pretēji sākotnēji optimistiskajiem FKTK un pašas kompānijas vadības paziņojumiem tomēr lēnā garā likvidējās un pašlaik izmaksā kompensācijas apdrošinātajam personām.

PABA veiktā tirgus analīze ir parādījusi, ka apdrošināto personu interešu aizsardzībā ir divas ļoti dažādas apdrošināto personu grupas – riska apdrošināšana un uzkrājošā apdrošināšana, kuru aizsardzība prasa ievērojami atšķirīgu pieeju un atšķirīgas metodes no tirgus uzrauga puses.

Ja uzkrājošā apdrošināšanā apdrošināto personu interese ir nosargāt  savu ieguldijumu un regulatora (FKTK)  uzdevums ir nodrošināt, lai uzkrājums būtu droši saglabāts, tad pavisam citādas ir apdrošināto personu intereses riska apdrošināšanas sektorā. Apdrošinātās personas primārā interese ir saņemt adekvātu atlīdzību (nevis saglabāt iemaksāto apdrošināšanas prēmiju), iestājoties apdrošināšanas gadījumam.  No tā vai atlīdzība tiks vai netiks saņemta, var būt  atkarīga pat personas dzīviba, ne tikai uzņēmuma eksistence un ekonomiskā stabilitāte.

Ja tirgus uzrauga (Latvijā FKTK) mērķis ir aizstāvēt apdrošināto personu intereses un nodrošināt finanšu stabilitāti, tad riska apdrošināšanā ir vajadzīga atšķirīga pieeja, salīdzinot ar banku un uzkrājošo sektoru. Riska apdrošināšanā atlīdzības saņemšanas iespējas nosaka apdrošināšanas noteikumi un tas, cik pilnīgu un patiesu informāciju par saviem noteikumiem sniedz apdrošinātājs vai apdrošināšanas starpnieks. Nav noslēpums, ka Latvijā apdrošināšanas noteikumi bieži vien ir gari un apdrošinājuma ņēmējiem nesaprotami. Tas rada vairākus nopietnus riskus apdrošinājuma ņēmējiem, kur apdrošinājuma ņēmējs gala rezultātā var nesaņemt apdrošināšanas atlīdzību, jo iegādātā apdrošināšana nesedz vajadzīgos riskus vai arī polisē ir iekļauti tik daudz izņēmumi, ka atlīdzība daudzos gadījumos vienkārši nepienākas.

Lai aizsargātu apdrošinājuma ņēmēju intereses risku apdrošināšanā, PABA uzskata, ka FKTK ir daudz lielāka uzmanība jāpievērš informācijas apmaiņas regulējumam attiecībā uz apdrošināšanas līguma saturu, līguma slēgšanu, un visādi ir jāstiprina profesionālo apdrošināšanas starpnieku – brokeru tirgus. Tīri mehāniska apdrošinātaju dažādo formālo darbības kritēriju kontrolēšana patērē lielus tirgus dalībnieku un uzraugu resursus, bet šie pasākumi diemžēl nespēj nodrošināt galveno komponenti apdrošināto personu aizsardzibā – izvēlētiem riskiem adekvātus līguma nosacijumus, apdrošināto personu izpratni par līguma nosacijumiem un to, ka apdrošinātāji vienveidīgi un korekti piemēro līgumu nosacījumus. PABA uzskata, ka apdrošināšanas starpnieku tirgus uzraudzībā galvenais mērķis ir patērētāju un apdrošinājuma ņēmēju aizsardzība, kas primāri būtu aizsargājama, uzraugot vai apdrošinājuma ņēmējam tiek sniegta adekvāta un saprotama informacija, un tā rezultātā ir izdarīta informēta izvēle. Banku un ieguldījumu brokeru kontroles metožu mehāniska piemērošana apdrošināšanas starpniekiem ir nelietderīga valsts pārvaldes resuru patērēšana, kas  dod tieši pretēju efektu –palielina administratīvo slogu, palielina valsts pārvaldes izmaksas, un novērš uzmanību no paša galvenā riska apdrošināšanas nozarē – patērētāja vajadzībām neatbilstošiem apdrošinājuma segumiem un nosacījumiem.  PABA uzskata, ka apdrošinājuma ņēmēju interesēs ir panākt lai regulatora veiktie pasākumi Latvijā garantētu tādu apdrošināšanu, kuras nosacijumi ir saprotami un atbilstoši patērētāja risku prioritātem, kā arī nodrošināt vienādu apdrošināšanas noteikumu piemērošanu Latvijas tirgū, tādejādi padarot apdrošināšanas atlīdzību procesu vairāk kontrolējamu un paredzamu no patērētāju puses.

92,72% no Projekta finansē Eiropas Savienība ar Eiropas Sociālā fonda starpniecību. Apakšaktivitāti administrē Valsts kanceleja sadarbībā ar Sabiedrības integrācijas fondu.
Šis paziņojums presei ir veidots ar Eiropas Savienības Eiropas Sociālā fonda finansiālu atbalstu. Par preses paziņojuma saturu atbild Latvijas Profesionālo apdrošināšanas brokeru asociācija.

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